Stepping into negotiations, I bring not only a genuine enthusiasm and passion but eagerness and love for the negotiation process itself as well. Sadly, high expectations can sometimes take a hit when we encounter puzzling or challenging behaviors from new counterparts. Thankfully, some quality scholarly advice on negotiation helps us to steer tricky settings and, with this foundation of passion and insight, let’s explore the competitive negotiators and the unexpected advantages they can offer.

While the virtues of cooperative negotiation, like problem-solving, mutual gains and relationship building.. are well-known, encountering a highly self-interested counterpart might initially seem like a setback, right?

However, surprising insights from a study by Sinem Acar-Burkay, Vidar Schei and Luk Warlop suggest otherwise. Their research, published in the ‘Group Decision and Negotiation’ journal, reveals that pairs composed of one Individualist and one Cooperative negotiator often achieve the most favorable outcomes, both: Economically and Relationally.

In their experiment, business school students negotiated under different motivational conditions. Interestingly, mixed-motive pairs not only secured immediate economic benefits but also preserved strong relational ties, evident from their continued willingness to collaborate months later.

This interesting dynamic suggests, that combining cooperative and competitive strategies can be highly effective. Especially, if you are aware of that fact.

The presence of distinct motivations can lead to a balance where competitive negotiators encourage more assertive value-claiming from their cooperative counterparts, while cooperators bring a value-creating perspective, enhancing overall outcomes. Adapting to both, competitive and cooperative approaches can enrich our negotiation tactics, turning apparent challenges into opportunities for mutual benefit. Here’s the link:

Building on our understanding of competitive dynamics, we now turn to the challenges posed by insincere negotiators, whose motives can reshape the negotiation process.

When launching negotiations, it’s very natural to hope for a counterpart as committed to a successful outcome as we are. Yet, this isn’t always the case, as noted by Polly Kang from the Wharton School, Krishnan S. Anand from the University of Utah, Pnina Feldman from Boston University, and Maurice E. Schweitzer, also from the Wharton School, in their enlightening study.

They explore how some parties enter negotiations with hidden agendas, not aiming to close a deal but to glean proprietary information or gain other strategic advantages.

Their research, published in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, uncovers tactics used by insincere negotiators. These include stalling, asking tangential questions and other methods to prolong negotiations without the intention to agree. For instance, companies may enter talks to extract competitor insights or consumers might negotiate to leverage better deals elsewhere, as seen in Amazon’s strategic engagement with numerous cities vying for its second headquarters.

Kang and her colleagues conducted experiments where they set up buyer-seller scenarios with different underlying motives. They found, that while insincere buyers often employed delaying tactics, some still reached agreements.
Interesting and in practical fact demonstrating the complex nature of -Negotiation Dynamics.

The researchers also highlighted the ‘agreement bias’ namely the tendency to conclude deals even when no agreement is necessary or beneficial.

To counter insincere tactics, the study suggests being cautious of partners who unduly slow down negotiations or seek excessive concessions. Legal mechanisms like earnest money in real estate, or nondisclosure agreements in corporate negotiations, can help ensure that parties are genuinely interested in reaching a consensus.

For a more in-depth look into these strategies and findings, you can refer to the full study here: This link provides access to the detailed research and methodologies used in uncovering the nuances of insincere negotiation tactics offering few valuable insights for anyone looking to sharpen their negotiation skills and -safeguard their interests.

Transitioning from the strategies to handle insincerity, we now address another complex aspect of negotiations: Dealing with notably.. difficult personality types and behaviour, to put it gently.

At times, you might find yourself facing a counterpart whose behavior seems extreme and dysfunctional. According to Marc-Charles Ingerson and Kristen Bell DeTienne of Brigham Young University, Jill M. Hooley of Harvard and Nathan A. Black of the University of Iowa, written in the “Negotiation Journal – “Dealing with Dysfunction: Negotiating with Difficult Individuals” an estimated 10% of working adults exhibit personality styles or behavioral tendencies that significantly challenge interactions. These can range from odd quirks to full-blown personality disorders.

While it’s crucial to avoid playing armchair psychologist, just understanding the few basics and most common difficult personality styles can be beneficial. This knowledge helps us “gauge” whether to proceed with a negotiation and how best to adapt to various behaviors. Here’s an overview of four challenging personality types encountered in negotiations and as per in the named Negotiation Journal contribution:

Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Individuals with high narcissism often struggle with empathy and may focus excessively on seeking admiration. They can, however, also display desirable traits such as charm and assertiveness.

Antisocial Personality Disorder: Often successful in business settings, these individuals might engage in deceitful or exploitative behavior. It’s generally advised to approach them cautiously, preferably in team settings which they might find daunting.

Borderline Personality Disorder: Marked by emotional instability and poor self-image, those with borderline personality disorder may react intensely in negotiations. Maintaining a calm, structured approach can help in managing interactions with them.

Passive-Aggressive Behavior: Those who exhibit passive-aggressive behavior may obstruct negotiations subtly while maintaining an outward appearance of cooperation. Clear, direct communication and careful documentation are key in dealing with such individuals.

Understanding and adapting to these complex behaviors can significantly enhance your effectiveness in negotiations, ensuring you deal these challenging interactions with tact and insight, because..

“The true measure of our negotiations isn’t only found in the quality of agreements we reach, but in the personal growth we experience and the high values values and standards we bring to the table.”